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There is still a controversy about how and why the 11 (eleven) FLIR's video lights
filmed by Mexican Air Force C26A crew on march 05, 2004 seem to be at the same
altitude of 11,500 ft of the level off flight.


Frame of the FLIR original lights sighting recorded
on march 05, 2004 at 11500ft and a heading of 081°
Camera azimuth -139° pointing toward 319°(NW)
Mexican Air Force C26A Airplane's FLIR coordinates
N18° 23.16 - W094° 25.84
FLIR STAR SAFIRE II from FLIR Systems Inc.

OIL WELL COORDINATES

CLICK ON IMAGE TO VIEW SATTELITE
FULL SIZE IMAGE
LANDSAT-7 PHOTO OF THE OIL WELLS AT CANTARELL


Frame of Cantarell oil well flames lights from a video
recorded on april 15, 2005 at 34,000ft altitude with
a different angle. Airplane heading = 252°
Camera used SONY ® HANDYCAM DCR-TRV18
(camera's pointing direction is about 190° WSW)
 


AIRPLANE GPS COORDINATES



FACT:  Objects or lights located over the earth's surface at a great distance
                and closer to the horizon are seen in a leveled flight from the cockpit
at the same height or altitude. It is an Optical Illusion


THE HORIZON IS AT THE SAME LEVEL AS THE FLIR IMAGES


       Pilots must rely and trust the artificial horizon or attitude indicator.

The Natural Horizon

Horizon is from the Greek for "division," specifically the line of division between the sea and the sky,
which is "horizontal." It is used as a reference point for the measurement of altitudes of stars,
sun and moon by mariners using a sextant. If the earth were flat, its direction would be perpendicular
to the vertical at any point. Since the earth is round, it is a little below that, by the amount of the dip.
 

If the observer's eye were on the surface, the horizon would be immediate, and the dip would be zero.
As the eye is raised, the horizon recedes and the dip increases. More and more of the surroundings can be seen.
From an aircraft, a wide circle of circle is seen, bounded by the distant horizon on all sides, and the dip is
noticeable even to the naked eye. Although ancient navigation instruments were not precise enough to
detect the dip, the sinking of ships and the coast below the horizon was evident to all, and realized to be
an effect of the sphericity of the earth, which was commonly accepted in the Hellenistic world before 300 BCE.

Only more recent, more ignorant people have assumed a flat earth,
and not thought about this well-known experience of all who have gone to sea.


WE HOPE THAT THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE COULD HELP YOU TO GET
A CLEAR IDEA OF HOW DISTANT OBJECTS OR LIGHTS ARE SEEN OVER
THE EARTH'S HORIZON FROM AN AIRPLANE'S COCKPIT AT ANY FLYING
ALTITUDE OR FLIGHT LEVEL

SEE THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE


 
1

Real non-edited picture where the
horizon is seen at the same flight level
2

We draw 11 points or lights at the horizon
trying to simulate the FLIR recorded image
3

We simulated that there is less day light and the
lights are still showing in the hotizon with no
change in their position but letting the clouds
and part of the pilot's note board in the cockpit
4

We added some "infrared filter" (that really
should be in grey color and not green).
Later we are going to change it to grey 
trying to get a better match of the pictures
5

We simulated less daylight letting the distant
lights in sight as much as posible.
6

We simulated that the daylight is almost gone and
let the distant lights still in sight over the horizon
7

We attached the FLIR's screen images to make
a comparisson of the image's similarity
Objects located over the earth's surface at a great
distance and closer to the horizon are seen from
the cockpit or windows at the same height or
altitude in a leveled flight
8

We used contrast and changed the picture to a
greyscale color to see the similarity or match.
The lights or objects are seen at the same
level or altitude from the natural horizon from
the airplane's cockpit or windows 

 




WE HOPE THAT THE ABOVE EXAMPLE COULD HELP YOU TO GET A CLEAR IDEA
OF HOW DISTANT OBJECTS OR LIGHTS ARE SEEN AT THE SAME LEVEL OVER THE
EARTH'S HORIZON FROM AN AIRPLANE'S COCKPIT AT ANY ALTITUDE OR FLIGHT LEVEL

Objects located over the earth's surface at a great distance and closer to the horizon are seen
from the cockpit or windows at the same height or altitude in a leveled flight. Here is the evidence.

Here are some examples


The Horizon seems to be at the same level                   The Horizon seems to be at the same level


The Horizon seems to be at the same level             The Horizon seems to be at the same level


 The Horizon seems to be at the same level                          The Horizon seems to be at the same level


   The Horizon seems to be at the same level

See the latest video of Cantarell oil rigs area recorded on april 14, 2005.
The gas flame lights match and proof the real lights source of the march
05, 2004 FLIR video and is the most convincing evidence till today.

To see the video you need windows media player
DOWNLOAD HERE
FREE

MICROSOFT
WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER 10

See Video Here


FLIR frame from video recorded april 14, 2005

Aerial view recorded with a SONY Handycam
Click here or any image to see video


PANORAMIC VIEW OF CAMPECHE AREA AND THE FLIR'S AND VIDEO SCREEN CAPTION
OIL RIGS POSITION ARE ESTIMATED AND NOT ON SCALE


 IMAGE SHOWS AKAL-C AND AKAL-J OIL PLATFORMS TAKEN BY LANDSAT 7 MIXED WITH
FLIR'S CAPTION AND FROM GOOGLE EARTH OF 2006 IMAGES NOT AVAILABLE ANYMORE
TO PROTECT VULNERABLE STRUCTURES AGAINST TERRORISM BECAUSE OF GOOGLE
EARTH'S GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES ACCURACY


See how the horizon seems to be at the same altitude
in a video (MPG) taken at 35,000 ft level flight HERE


click on any image to see the video


Here is an explanation for people with non flying experience.

Attitude Indicator

This instrument is considered the most important
for flights under the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)

The "Attitude Indicator" provides a substitute for the earth's horizon.

The attitude indicator displays scales that allow the pilot to set climb/dive
angles and bank angle (VERY important aspects of instrument flying).

The attitude indicator plays a vital role in overcoming our sensory information
that serves us well on the ground but provides incorrect and disorienting
data at night or in poor visibility weather conditions.


 The BLUE sphere area represents the sky and the
DARK BROWN area the earth. When the airplane is leveled
and stabilized the airplane's wings symbol is also leveled between
the BLUE and DARK BROWN sphere areas

The attitude indicator, or artificial horizon, displays your flight attitude,
or what you should see out the windshield if the weather were to allow it.
It has blue shading on the top, depicting an artificial sky, and a black or
brown bottom, representing the ground. In-between is the horizon bar.

Cruise attitude

An aircraft is usually designed so that the "horizon/nose sight picture" that the
pilot sees in cruising flight is similar to that seen when the aircraft is on the ground.

This will also usually coincide with having the interior floor and passenger compartment in a
level attitude. In cruise flight, the aircraft maintains a constant airspeed and altitude,
which is the result of a constant pitch attitude and aircraft power setting.
 


The Mexican Air Force C26A was supposedly flying
at 11,500 ft, if not, the pilot was violating the
VFR (Visual Flight Rules)

Mexican Air Force C26A at the time of the sighting on march 05, 2004
was flying on a East North East bound heading of  080º +/- .(see graphic)


LARGE BLACK LINE SHOWS THE MERLIN C26A TRACK FROM 16:52:33 Local TO 17:28:06 Local
Image from Laurent Leger source:  http://www.ufocom.org/pages/v_fr/m_articles/video_mexique/Image24.jpg
 

Separation of Air Traffic and Rules

As in all aspects of life there are rules and regulations that affect flying.
Some rules are just good common sense practices while others are habits
acquired through specific training. All of these rules exist because safety in
the skies is the most important consideration of all.

For most small aircraft flying outside controlled airspace in good weather,
the pilots are responsible for maintaining a safe distance from other aircraft.
This is the "see and be seen" principle otherwise known as VFR or Visual Flight Rules.
In this mode of operation, a pilot must keep a continual watch for other aircraft in the sky.
When flying above 3,000 feet above ground level (AGL), the pilot must follow VFR cruising
altitudes given below (or east/west cruising altitudes).

Flying a magnetic course of 000° to 179°, fly at odd thousands plus 500 feet.
For example, 3,500; 5,500; 7,500;9,500; 11,500; feet etc...

Flying a magnetic course of 180° to 359°, fly at even thousands plus 500 feet.
For example, 4,500; 6,500; 8,500; 10,500; 12,500 feet etc...


CHART SHOWING IFR AND VFR ALTITUDE AND FLIGHT LEVELS
 


O P T I C A L     I L U S I O N

Why the FLIR lights (Oil well flames) appeared to be at the same level as the
Mexican Air Force C26A that was flying at an altitude of 11,500 ft on march 05, 2004?


Vision and Spatial Orientation

Visual references provide the most important sensory information to maintain spatial orientation
on the ground and during flight, especially when the body and/or the environment are in motion.
Even birds, reputable flyers, are unable to maintain spatial orientation and fly safely when
deprived of vision (due to clouds or fog). Only bats have developed the ability to fly without vision
but have replaced their vision with auditory echolocation. So, it should not be any surprise to us that,
when we fly under conditions of limited visibility, we have problems maintaining spatial orientation.

Central Vision

Central vision, also known as foveal vision is involved with the identification of objects and the
perception of colors. During instrument flight rules (IFR) flights, central vision allows pilots to
acquire information from the flight instruments that is processed by the brain to provide
orientational information. During visual flight rules (VFR) flights, central vision allows pilots to
acquire external information (monocular and binocular) to make judgments of distance, speed, and depth.

Peripheral Vision

Peripheral vision, also known as ambient vision, is involved with the perception of movement
(self and surrounding environment) and provides peripheral reference cues to maintain
spatial orientation. This capability enables orientation independent from central vision and
that is why we can walk while reading. With peripheral vision, motion of the surrounding
environment produces a perception of self motion even if we are standing or sitting still.

Visual References

Visual references that provide information about distance, speed,
and depth of visualized objects include:
 
  • Comparative size of known objects at different distances.

  •  
  • Comparative form or shape of known objects at different distances.

  •  
  • Relative velocity of images moving across the retina.

  • Nearby objects are perceived as moving faster than distant objects .
     
  • Interposition of known objects.

  • One object placed in front of another is perceived as being closer to the observer.
     
  • Varying texture or contrast of known objects at different distances.

  • Object detail and contrast are lost with distance.
     
  • Differences in illumination perspective of objects due to light and shadows.

  •  
  • Differences in aerial perspective of visualized objects. More distant objects are

  • seen as bluish and blurry.
    The flight attitude of an airplane is generally determined by the pilot's visual reference to the natural horizon.
    When the natural horizon is obscured, attitude can sometimes be maintained by visual reference to the
    surface below. If neither horizon nor surface visual references exist, the airplane's attitude can only be
    determined by artificial means such as an attitude indicator or other flight instruments. Surface references
    or the natural horizon may at times become obscured by smoke, fog, smog, haze, dust, ice particles,
    or other phenomena, although visibility may be above VFR minimums.

    This is especially true at airports located adjacent to large bodies of water or sparsely populated areas,
    where few, if any, surface references are available.

    Lack of horizon or surface reference is common on
    over-water flights, at night, or in low visibility conditions.

    Forty years ago, there were two separate sources of flight information:

    The instruments and the out-the-window scene.
    Today's technology has blurred the separation between these two sources of flight information.
    Superimposed flight symbology, whether on a HUD or -Head Up Display- of sensor
    imagery now allows a level of integration that was not possible yesterdays.

    One example is a velocity vector that can be maintained on the runway aim point for landing.
    Another example, which has changed with the technology is the artificial horizon.

    Originally presented as the ADI ball on the instrument panel, this can now be presented
    with superimposed symbology as a conformal, artificial horizon with additional pitch markings.
    This has the obvious added advantage in that not only is the information presented with an
    "eyes-out" capability, but that it augments the visual scene in a natural, intuitive, conformal
    manner. One additional characteristic of the conformal mapping is that the relationships of
    items in the world can be easily judged against the artificial horizon.
    Previously, this required scanning and mental transformations when the information
    was presented on the conventional ADI ball.

           ADI= Attitude Deviation Indicator
    HUD= Head Up Display

    The attitude indicator, or artificial horizon


    Artificial Horizon

    This instrument is considered the most important
    for flight under the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)

    A fixed miniature airplane lies in the middle of the instrument, giving the
    pilot a tail view of what the airplane's attitude is. Markings along the rim
    of the instrument depict degrees of bank. If the miniature airplane's wing
    is in line with the third mark, the airplane is in a 30 degree left or right bank.
    This instrument runs on gyroscopic, vacuum, or electric power, and in the
    most sophisticated aircraft, the pilot may be looking at the depiction on
    a TV-style, miniature cathode ray tube.

    Pitch
    Pitch is the vertical relationship between the nose and horizon.
    Since the pilot/cockpit and nose of the aircraft are all moving together,
    the pitch attitude is seen as the ratio of visible sky to ground in the view ahead.

    You may also like to think in terms of the position of the horizon in the forward window.
    The exact ratio of sky to ground will vary from one aircraft type to another.
    In a typical light aircraft, the ratio might be 2/3 ground and 1/3 sky when
    the aircraft is in the cruise attitude

    References:

    ALLSTAR Network Web site

    ATTITUDE INDICATOR
    http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/attitude.htm


    Nose of the airplane is about 2º above the horizon due to
    Longitudinal trim compensation ( lift )  for weight and speed.


    Altimeter showing an altitude of 31,000 ft


    Speed indicator showing Mach .760 or 280  Knots

    See video  (MPG) showing leveled flight at 31,000 ft here



    Perceptual Processes in Action

    Perceiving Affordances

    Successful interactions between an observer and the environment, and objects within
    the environment, implies an knowledge of what actions are possible and appropriate in 
    any given situation. Gibson (1979) defined affordances as the opportunities for action for
    the observer provided by an environment, and proposed that observers perceive these
    affordances rather than abstract physical properties of objects and environments.

    In this sense affordances are real. They have a relational ontology in they do not exist
    as a function of either the environment or the observer alone, but only have existence
    in the interaction between the physical capabilities and properties of the observer
    and the physical properties of the environment.

    Perceiving Layout

    One of the fundamental requirements for the control of action within an environment
    is the ability to perceive the layout of objects and surfaces. No single source of
    information about the relative distances of objects and surfaces can provide the
    information required to perceive layout throughout the range of distances required.

    However, in cluttered well lit conditions typical of natural environments people are very
    good at obtaining information about layout through the simultaneous use of multiple cues.

    The relative effectiveness of different sources of information differs systematically with
    the distance of objects and surfaces from the observer, and also with characteristics of
    the observer and the environment (such as the size of objects, the speed which an 
    observer is moving through the environment, and the nature of the terrain).

    Considerable research has been undertaken to describe sources of distance
    information, and Cutting & Vishton (1995) describe seven independent sources,
    summarized below. A number of outstanding questions remain, however, regarding 
    how multiple cues are combined in the perception of layout under different conditions.

    Perceiving

    Pictorial Cues

    Occlusion. 

    An opaque object which hides, or partially obscures another object
    provides ordinal information about the layout of objects in the environment. 
    Occlusion is an effective cue throughout the complete visible range of distances.

    Relative size/relative density. 

    The size of the retinal image projected by objects of the same size differs at
    different distances (relative size), and the density of the retinal images of  regularly
    placed clusters of objects, or textures also varies with distance of the objects or
    textures from the observer (relative density). Relative size and density  can yield
    scaled information, and is effective over the complete visible range of distances.

    Height in the visual field.

    Ordinal information about the distance of the objects is available from the vertical
    location in the visual field of the bases of objects resting on the (horizontal) ground. 
    The bases of more distant objects are located higher in the visual field than the bases
    of closer objects. Scaled information is available relative to the observer's eye height. 
    The cue is not useful at very close distances, is maximally effective at distances of
    about 2m, and decreases in effectiveness to a distance of about 100 m.

    Aerial perspective. 

    Atmospheric interference causes distant objects to become bluer, and decreased in
    contrast relative to nearer objects. The distance over which the cue is effective varies
    with atmospheric conditions, but increases in effectiveness from distances beyond
    100m before decreasing in effectiveness at distances beyond several kilometers.

    Motion cues

    Motion perspective.

    The apparent motion of objects caused by movement of the observer through
    the environment provides information about the layout, for example, near objects
    appear to move past a moving observer more rapidly than far objects. Information
    is not available about objects which are too close relative to the velocity of movement
    to be tracked, and decreases in effectiveness to about 100 m, again, depending 
    on the velocity of movement (useful at greater distances when velocity is high).

     Binocular cues

    Convergence. Maintaining single vision of proximal visual targets requires the
    extra ocular muscles of the eyes to rotate the visual axes toward each other.

    Fixation of closer objects requires a greater degree of convergence, and
    corresponding increase in the activation of the extra ocular muscles (medial recti)
    to achieve this convergence. Information from the extra ocular muscles regarding
    the degree of vengeance thus provides information about the distance of objects
    from the observer. The cue is only effective at very small distances (< 2 m). 

    While changes in accommodation (the shape of the lens) necessary to focus on
    objects has traditionally been accepted as a second extra ocular cue for distance,
    recent evidence suggests that accommodation provides little, if any, useful information
    (Tresilian & Mon-Williams, in press).

    Vengeance changes with distance

    Binocular disparity 

    The image of same object viewed through two eyes is projected to different locations
    on the retinas of the eyes. The relative position of the images provides information
    about the distance of the object from the eyes. Disparity provides greatest information
    for very close objects and decreases in effectiveness to about 10 m.

    Summary

    No single source of information about the relative distances of objects and surfaces
    can provide the information required to perceive layout throughout the range of
    distances required. People are very good at obtaining information about layout in
    the cluttered natural environment through the simultaneous use of multiple cues.

    However, even in tasks, such as endoscopy, where available cues are reduced
    ingenious methods can be adopted to provide the observer with the necessary layout
    information (see Voorhorst, 1998).

    The relative importance of each cue varies with distance. For objects within personal
    space (< 2m) occlusion, retinal disparity, relative size, convergence and motion
    perspective provide useful information (in decreasing order of effectiveness). 
    For objects within action space (>2 < 30m) occlusion, height in the visual field,
    binocular disparity, motion perspective and relative size are useful; while for objects
    and surfaces in vista space (> 30m) occlusion, height in the visual field, relative size
    and aerial perspective cues provide the information which allow actions to be controlled.

    Source: The University of Queensland
    Brisbane, Queensland 4072 Australia
    http://www.hms.uq.edu.au/percept/afford.htm

     

    Infrared Imagery in Flight

    With the aid of advanced imaging sensors, pilots of both rotor craft and fixed wing aircraft
    can now conduct missions that were not possible just a few years ago. In general, these
    sensors can be viewed as extensions to a pilot's own visual system. They allow the pilot
    to safely fly and complete missions at times when environmental conditions (e.g., darkness,
    dust, smoke) would preclude flight or mission completion with unaided vision. One class of
    imaging sensors that has been used extensively by pilots for targeting, navigation, and flight
    control purposes are thermal imaging (infrared imagery) systems. In general, thermal imaging
    sensors are sensitive to thermal radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum
    (3-5 microns or 8-14 microns). (Visible light, to which the human eye is sensitive, is in the range
    of 0.4 to 0.7 microns.)
     

    A thermal sensor creates a visual scene on a cathode-ray tube (CRT) that can be mounted either
    on the cockpit panel or the pilot's helmet. The visual scene provided by the sensor is monochrome
    and appears to be similar to black and white television (TV) or reversed-video (i.e., phase inverted)
    black and white TV. However, despite the overall appearance of similarity to TV images, there are
    important differences. An important qualitative difference between thermal imagery (TI) and TV or
    unaided vision occurs as a direct result of the image's source: The distribution of gray shades in
    TI represents relative temperature differences, rather than brightness and reflectance differences.

    Compared to TV images or directly-viewed
    visual scenes, TI has the following properties:

    (1) Heat-emitting objects  generally have higher contrast with the background;
    (2) Shadowing/shading information may be absent;
    (3) Sensor polarity settings (i.e., the assignment of white or black to hot) may
          lead to perceptual errors;  and
    (4) A given object may appear quite different when viewed under different
         environmental  conditions (e.g., time of day, yearly season, humidity, ambient
         temperature).

     These characteristics of thermal imagery directly impact flight
     control and navigation, particularly at very low altitudes:

    (1) Pilot workload is generally higher (Hart & Brickner, 1989);
    (2) Object distances may be inaccurately estimated (Hart & Brickner, 1989),
          (Hale & Piccione, 1989);
    (3) The horizon line may be indistinct (Bohm, 1985); and
    (4) Specific objects in the environment may change luminance levels
         drastically as a function of time of day (Berry, Dyer, Park, Sellers & Telton, 1984).

    Infrared Imagery in Flight
    Dr. David C. Foyle
    MS 262-3
    Aerospace Human Factors Research Division
    NASA Ames Research Center
    Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000
    http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/ihi/papers/publications/foyle/visualissues91/visualissues91.html


    FACT:  Objects or lights located over the earth's surface at a great distance
                    and closer to the horizon are seen in a leveled flight from the cockpit
    at the same height or altitude. It is an Optical Illusion

    Do you understand all that Mr. Kolbeck?
    Or you need more evidence?



    Enrique Kolbeck was presented as
    an "experienced" Commercial Pilot on
    Sept. 27, 2004 TV program but he
    doesn't know how distant objects closer to
    the horizon are seen at same level altitude.
    An experienced controller and pilot should
    know that. We talk about basic knowledge.

    Enrique Kolbeck  wrongly explaining about
    how  the Cantarell Oil Wells couldn't be seen
    at same level as of the C26A

    SEE VIDEO HERE (IN SPANISH)


    Enrique Kolbeck appears on Cristina
    Saralegui show as a witness of the
     Aeromexico's DC-9 collision with a
    UFO HOAX


    Enrique Kolbeck at a UFO
    conference, as always, telling the
    audience he was an eyewitness of
    Capt. Raymundo Ruano's incident
    now proved as a HOAX.

    Enrique Kolbeck appears on Cristina Saralegui's show

    Enrique Kolbeck Vergara the eternal Air Traffic Controllers "Icon" is the
    same person used by Jaime Maussán who lied about the alleged
    Aeromexico's DC-9 collision with a UFO on his final approach to
    Mexico's Intl. airport in 1994.

    See this LIAR controller and pilot HERE:



    IRREFUTABLE INCOMPETENCE!
     


    Jaime Maussán explaining that the oil wells couldn't be seen at the same
    C26A's altitude of 11,500 ft. Of course he doesn't know, as a real researcher
    should, about the "Attitude Indicator" instrument or "Artificial Horizon" and
     how objects located over the earth's surface at a great distance and closer
    to the horizon are seen at the same height or altitude of a leveled off flight



    AEROMEXICO'S AIRPLANE COLLIDES WITH A UFO IN 1994!
    TRUE OR FALSE? .....FALSE! ....THIS CASE IS A HOAX.


    Ruano, Kolbeck, Maussan, Cristina
    http://www.alcione.org/OVNI94_engx.html

    WHERE IS THE CO-PILOT?
    WHY THE CO-PILOT'S NAME WAS SILENCED?

    See and hear the video of  this same controller and his FALSE TESTIMONY
    at the CSETI's National Press Club Conference of may 09, 2001  here:
    disclosure1.rm (5 MB)  -

    You need Real Player (FREE) to see the video -click here-


    Mexican Air Force pilots film unidentified lights
    Are they UFO's or simply Oil Well flames?
    click here

    March 05, 2004 Mexican Air Force C26A FLIR's
    video on board communications transcription
    click here

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